Hindi Diwas 2017: Journey of Hindi from pre-Partition India to post-independence language politics

The list of Hindi as official language of India occurred on September 14, 1949, which has since been commemorated as Hindi Diwas. Hindi and English are the two official languages of India for the government of the Union, while the constitution recognizes a total of 22 languages. Since the independence of the Indians in 1947, the Union government has made efforts to boost the Hindi language the widely used state, where it was helped in large part by the growing popularity of Hindi cinema.

The session of the Indian National Congress in Karachi in 1925 decided that Hindustani, the popular undifferentiated mixture of Hindi and Urdu should be the lingua franca of the independent country. However, this resolution was modified a few years later due to the influence of Hindi Sahitya Sammelan who suggested that Hindi should be adopted.

The resolution bit the Muslim members of Congress and forced the communal entanglement. The Muslim League, which was formed in 1906, on the other hand, approved Urdu as the symbol of Muslim identity and thus more suited to be the lingua franca of India. While the partition of India became imminent, Urdu perceived as aligned with Pakistan was fired contenders national languages of the new independent India.

The pro-Hindi Group / Hindustani, which included Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, advocated the adoption of one of the two languages as the only national language, while the anti-Hindi group opposed and helps maintain English as the official language. The Indian Constitutional Committee in 1949 reached an agreement, known as the Munshi-Ayyangar formula, to solve the problem.

The name of the Hindi language was Hindus was consoled with a directive clause carried Sanskrit as the pillars of Hindi vocabulary with an explicit non-boycott of words in other languages. The “national language” is not mentioned and only the two official languages of the Indian Union are described. The official use of English at the beginning had to end 15 years after the entry into force of the Constitution, that is to say, January 26, 1965.

Pro-Hindi lobby politicians such as Balkrishna Sharma and Purushottam Das Tandon rejected the adoption of English as a remnant of imperialism as the official language and manifested themselves by demanding that Hindi is the only national language. Various modifications were proposed to this effort, but this could never take place while the imposition of Hindi remained unacceptable to more than half of the Indians, especially in the south and east of the country. Tamil Nadu saw violent protests against Hindi in 1965, after Hindi was actually forced.

As a result, 15 years after the entry into force of the Indian Constitution, the Congressional Labor Commission accepted a resolution stating that the position of the official English language would not change unless all states agree. Finally, through the 1967 law on the official languages, the government adopted a policy of bilingualism that indefinitely guarantees the use of English and Hindi as official languages in the Republic of India.

After 1971, India’s language policy has focused on the promotion of regional languages by enrolling them in the eighth program of the Indian Constitution, which means that these languages would have the right to representation on the Commission official languages. The scenario was intended to curb the linguistic resentment of the multilingual masses. The list went from 14 at the time of independence to 22 in 2007.

Language policy has only India. During his three years of service, the government of the National Democratic Alliance (ADN), under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has sparked controversy over a new spell with attempts to promote the use of Hindi, perceived as a renewed attempt to impose a imposition of the majority language on non-Aboriginal speakers.

In 2014, the government ordered its officials to use Hindi in social network accounts and in government letters. Modi himself, despite speaking fluent English, has consistently chosen to direct diplomacy in Hindi in international forums with world leaders. Earlier this year, former President Pranab Mukherjee gave a nod to the central government’s suggestion that all dignitaries and ministers had their speeches in Hindi.

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