Gravitational waves are helping us crack the mystery of how pairs of black holes form

Gravitational waves are helping us crack the mystery of how pairs of black holes form

A small perturbation in space has become a great scientific discovery when LIGO surprisingly has managed to save the dawn of September 14, 2015. It was the first observation of a “gravitational wave” – ​​a ripple in minutes The structure of space-time In itself – predicted by Albert Einstein a century ago. The signal came from two black holes that melted in over a billion light years, and came to our planet that very morning.

Detection introduced a new era of astronomy. Two other detections followed (and probably a third), all of which came from pairs of black hole holes. These measures are already beginning to help scientists unravel some of the best-kept secrets in the universe. Our new study, published in Nature, shows how much we are working on how black pairs are formed.

The black holes studied by CME – each weighing between 10 and 30 times the mass of the Sun – face moves at half the speed of light, twisting space and time. The fusion of two black holes releases more energy in a fraction of a second than all visible stars in the universe combined.

However, when space-time distortions, which move at the speed of light for over a billion years in reaching Earth, the waves are actually very low, stretching and stretching less than a part in 1021.

This means that the mirrors of the FAM detector are moving less than a thousandth the size of an atomic nucleus. It is not surprising that gravitational waves were so difficult to detect.

The incomplete science of black holes

Black holes are infinitely dense remains of massive stars. In studying, astrophysicists have a vision of the life of these stars. And one of the key questions that bother us since the first detection of gravitational waves is how these pairs of heavy black holes approaching enough to merge?

It is important to unravel the history of the merging of formed black holes. This can help us understand the mysterious aging of stars and massive interactions in dense stellar environments.

There are two main classes of scenarios proposed so far. The first view is that two massive stars are born in pairs. They may have interacted by raising the tides on the surface of the other, so that the moon raises the tides on the earth. Or they may have exchanged gas, a star blowing material in space and the other capturing a bit.

Eventually, each star collapsed into a black hole. If the black holes were quite narrow, so the gradual energy loss of their orbits in the form of gravitational waves would cause the two black holes to spiral and eventually melt. This scenario is known as isolated binary evolution.

The other option is that the two black holes formed independently, but they did so in an environment where many stars were closely related.

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